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Research Areas
  • Atmospheric Physics
  • Aeronomy
  • Ionosphere–Thermosphere
  • Mlt Region
  • Airglow Waves

Pedrina Terra dos Santos

Dr. Terra has been leading the project of the Remote Optical Facility (ROF) at the island of Culebra (150 km east of AO) since 2015, which was established to complement the optical observational capability of AO. Nowadays the ROF is populated with optical and radar receivers' instruments obtained from several peers reviewed proposals.Dr. Terra is from Brazil and has a bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineer. During her second year at the university, she started a fellowship at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). There she heard about Arecibo Observatory (AO) for the first time and fell in love with space sciences. When she graduated, she started her masters at INPE in the area of Space Geophysics, under the supervision of a former AO' s scientist to study the features of the plasma bubbles over the Brazilian territory. a couple of years later, she started her Ph. D. at INPE to study the dynamics of the ionosphere‐thermosphere system and had the opportunity to spend part of her Ph. D. at the university of Sheffield, England.
Dr. Terra started at Arecibo Observatory in 2016 as a postdoctoral fellow at Space and atmospheric Science group. Since then, she dedicates her time to optical sciences and provides her expertise and experience of the remote sensing of the mesosphere and thermosphere of the Earth, airglow emissions, and gravity waves.

Dr. Terras research focuses on the remote sensing studies of the Earth's atmosphere dynamics using Fabry–Perot interferometry, imagery, and photometry. Her main research topic is the coupling between the lower and higher atmosphere via waves–induced processes.

Dr. Terra has been leading the project of the Remote Optical Facility (ROF) at the island of Culebra (150 km east of AO) since 2015, which was established to complement the optical observational capability of AO. Nowadays the ROF is populated with optical and radar receivers' instruments obtained from several peers reviewed proposals.


Academic Advisory

AO REU (2019) Sophia Salazar, Project Title: First Survey of Lightning Impacts on the Lower Ionosphere Over Arecibo. P. Terra (AO), C.G.M. Brum (AO), and Caitano L. da Silva (New Mexico Tech).

(2012) Diana Prado Garzon (2012) Project Title: ÒWeather Statistical Comparison of the main cities of Puerto Rico.

(2008) Ali Amirrezvani Project Title: ÒPreliminary results of the Geogocoronal H–alpha variability according to the Geomagnetic Activity at Arecibo.

Peer-reviewed publications


2020

Terra, P.,Vargas, F.,Brum, C. G. M., and Miller, E. S.(2020),Geomagnetic and Solar dependency of MSTIDs occurrence rate: A climatology based on airglow observations from the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (ROF). J. Geophys. Res: Space Physics,125, e2019JA027770.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027770

2019

Vargas, F., Brum, C., Terra, P. and Gobbi, D. (2019), Mean Zonal Drift Velocities of Plasma bubbles estimated from Keograms of Nightglow All–Sky Images from the Brazilian Sector. Atmosphere 2020., 11, 69.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010069

2012

Brum, C. G. M.,Tepley, C. A.,Fentzke, J. T.,Robles, E.,dos Santos, P. T., and Gonzalez, S. A.(2012),Long?term changes in the thermospheric neutral winds over Arecibo: Climatology based on over three decades of Fabry?Perot observations, J. Geophys. Res.,117, A00H14.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016458

2011

Santos, P. T., Brum, C. G. M., Tepley, C. A., Aponte, N., Gonzlez, S. A. and Robles, E. (2011), Using incoherent scatter radar to investigate the neutral wind long–term trend over Arecibo. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H13, 2011.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016514

Brum, C.G.M., Rodrigues, F.S., dos Santos, P.T., Matta, A. C., Aponte, N.A., Gonzlez, S.A. and Robles, E. (2011), A modeling study of foF2 and hmF2 parameters measured by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and comparison with IRI model predictions for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A03324.
https://doi.org/10.129/2010JA015727

Tepley, C. A., Robles, E., Garcia, R., Santos, P.T., Brum, C.G.M. and Burnside, R. (2011), Directional trends in thermospheric neutral winds observed at Arecibo during the past three solar cycles. J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H06.
https://doi.org/10.129/2010JA16172

2006

Brum, C.G.M., Abdu, M.A., Batista, I.S., Carrasco, A.J. and Terra, P. M. (2006), Numerical Simulation of Nighttime Electron Precipitation in the Lower Ionosphere over a Sub–Auroral Region. Adv. in Space Res., 37, 1051 1057.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.02.003

Non Peer-reviewed publications


2020

P. Terra, F. Vargas, C. Brum and E. S. Miller (2020). Geomagnetic and Solar dependency of MSTIDs occurrence rate: A Climatology based on airglow observations from the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (ROF). Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Meeting 2019, 22–26 Virtual Meeting.

2019

P. T. Santos, F. Vargas, C. G. Brum and E. S. Miller (2019). A detailed study of the MSTIDs observed over Puerto Rico during minimum solar activity. AGU Fall Meeting 2019, SA23C–3137, 2019AGUFMSA23C3137S.

P. Terra, F. Vargas (2019). MSTIDs detected at the Remote Optical Facility (ROF) during Solar Minimum: An overview. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Meeting 2019, 16–21 June, Santa Fe, NM.

C. Brum, P. Santos, F. Vargas, J. Urbina and M. Cohen (2019). On search of tropospheric extreme weather signatures on mesosphere and above or What did we learn from Hurricane Maria. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Meeting 2019, 16–21 June, Santa Fe, NM..

D. Anish Roshi, L.D.Anderson, E.Araya, D.Balser, W.Brisken, C.Brum, D.Campbell, S.Chatterjee, E.Churchwell, J.Condon, J.Cordes, F.Cordova, Y.Fernandez, J.Gago, T.Ghosh, P.F.Goldsmith, C.Heiles, D.Hickson, B.Jeffs, K.M.Jones, J.Lautenbach, B.M.Lewis, R.S.Lynch, P.K.Manoharan, S.Marshall, R.Minchin, N.T.Palliyaguru, B.B.P.Perera, P.Perillat, N.Pinilla–Alonso, ,D.J.Pisano, L.Quintero, S.Raizada, S.M.Ransom, F.O.Fernandez–Rodriguez, C.J.Salter, P. Santos, M.Sulzer, P.A.Taylor, F.C.F.Venditti, A.Venkataraman, A.K.Virkki, A.Wolszczan, M.Womack, and L.F.Zambrano–Marin (2019), Astro2020 Activities and Projects White Paper: Arecibo Observatory in the Next Decade. Submitted as an Activities and Projects White Paper for the Astro2020 decadal survey.

E. S. Miller, G. S. Bust, G. W. Perry, S. R. Kaeppler, J. Vierinen, N. A. Frissell, A. A. Knuth, P. J. Erickson, R. Nikoukar, A. T. Chartier, P. Santos, C. Brum, J. T. Fentzke, T.R. Hanley, A. J. Gerrard (2019). "Sounding the Ionosphere with Signals of Opportunity in the High–Frequency (HF) Band". USNC–URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 9–12 January, Boulder, Colorado, USA, (2019).

E. S. Miller, P. Santos and C. Brum (2019). Passive HF and Optical Observations of F–region Dynamics from Culebra, PR. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2019, 16–21 June, Santa Fe, NM.

E. S. Miller, P. Santos, C. Brum and P. Bernhardt (2019). Partially–Cooperative Observations of Arecibo HF Heating Campaigns 2015–2017. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2019, 16–21 June, Santa Fe, NM.

S. Salazar, C. da Silva, C. Brum and P. Santos (2019)."Survey of Lightning Impacts in the Lower Ionosphere Over Arecibo", New Mexico AMP Undergraduate Student Research Conference 2019, October 10–12, Las Cruces, NM.

2018

P. T. Santos, F. Vargas and C. G. Brum (2018). Climatology of the MSTIDs observed during Solar Minimum at the Remote Optical Facility (ROF). AGU Fall Meeting 2018, Walter E Washington Convention Center – Hall A–C (Poster Hall).(SA33C–3494).

J. Lautenbach, C. G. Brum, M. P. Sulzer, P. T Santos, N. Aponte (2018). Observation of a Wavelike Event over the Arecibo Observatory. AGU Fall Meeting 2018, Walter E Washington Convention Center – Hall A–C (Poster Hall). (SA43B–3508). URL

2017

P. Joshi, L. Waldrop, C.G.M. Brum, M. Sulzer, N. Aponte, S. Gonzalez, P. Santos and E. Robles (2017). O–O+ momentum imbalance in the topside ionosphere: implications for bias in MSIS oxygen density specification. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2017, Keystone Resort, CO, Jun. 18–23, Page 17. URL

P. Santos, C.G.M. Brum and Eva Robles (2017). The Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO–ROF) in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico: Current Status and Future Projects. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2017, Keystone Resort, CO, Jun. 18–23, Page 17.

2016

C.G.M. Brum, C. A. Tepley, P. Santos, E. Robles, and J. Lautenbach (2016), Long term changes in the thermospheric neutral winds over Arecibo: Climatology based on three decades of Fabry–Perot observations, 9th IAGA workshop on Long–Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere in Khlungsborn, Germany, September 19–23.

2014

Santos, P.T.; Brum, C.G.M.; Kerr, R.B. and Noto, J. (2014). Climatology of the O+ temperatures over Arecibo for the historical deep solar minimum using Incoherent Scatter Radar and airglow data. AGU Fall Meeting 2014, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 15–19. (SA51A–4076).

P.T. Santos; C.G.M. Brum and R. Kerr (2014). Climatology of the O+ temperature over Arecibo for the historical deep solar minimum using incoherent scatter radar and OII 7320 A twilight airglow data. The 14th Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST Radar MST14/iMST1, So Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil, May 25–31. Page 25.

2011

Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.A.; Fentzke, J.T.; Santos, P.T. and Gonzalez, S.A. (2011). Climatology of the Thermospheric Neutral Wind over Arecibo Observatory based on over three decades of Fabry Perot observations and an Associated Empirical Model. AGU Fall Meeting 2011, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 5–9 (SA31B–1975).

Santos, P.; Noto, J.; Brum, C.G.M.; Riccobono, J.; Garcia, R. and Robles, E. (2011). An overview of the recent results from the H–alpha and OII 7320A observations at Arecibo Observatory using the new low resolution Fabry–Perot Interferometer. AGU Fall Meeting 2011, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 5–9 (SA13B–1895).

2010

Santos, P.T.; Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.A.; Aponte, N. and Gonzalez, S.A. (2010). Using incoherent scatter radar to investigate possible causes of the neutral wind long–term trends over Arecibo. AGU Fall Meeting 2010, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 13–17 (SA11B–1582)..

Santos, P.T.; C.G.M Brum; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.; Gonzalez, S. and Garcia, R. (2010). H–alpha response to geomagnetic disturbed activity at Arecibo. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2010, Boulder, CO, Jun. 20–25 (IT–MDIT–07), page 23.

Robles, E.; Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.; Santos, P.M. and Gonzales, S.A. (2010). Climatology of the thermospheric neutral winds over Arecibo. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2010, Boulder, CO, Jun. 20–25 (IT–LTRV–02), page 19..

Brum, C.G.M.; Santos, P.M. and Gonzales, S. A. (2010). Long–term decrease of the height of the F–region peak in the ionosphere over Arecibo. 2010 Joint Assembly – Meeting of the Americas, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, Aug. 8–12 (SA33A–09)..

Santos, P.M.; Tepley, C. Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzales, S.A.; Robles, E. and Garcia, R. (2010). The long–term trend of the thermospheric neutral winds observed at Arecibo during the last 30 years. 2010 Joint Assembly – Meeting of the Americas, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, Aug. 8–12 (SA33A–10)..

Santos, P.M.; Kerr, R.; Noto, J. and Brum, C.G.M. (2010). H–alpha and OII 732.0nm Observations using the Arecibo's new low resolution FPI. 2010 Joint Assembly – Meeting of the Americas, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, Aug. 8–12 (SA33A–11). UR.

Souza, J.R.; Brum, C.G.M.; Batista, I.S.; Asevedo Jr., W.; Santos, P.M.T. and Bailey, G.J. (2010). Modelo parametrizado do contedo eletrnico total ionosfrico para o setor sul americano. III Simpsio Brasileiro de Geofsica Espacial e Aeronomia, Armao de Bzios, RJ, Brazil, Sep. 1–3.

Santos, P.T.; Noto, J.; Brum, C.G.M.; Migliozzi, M.; Riccobono, J.; Garcia, R. And Kerr, R.B. (2010). H–alpha response to geomagnetic disturber activity at Arecibo Observatory. 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Bremen, Germany, Jul.18–25. Page 131..2

2009

Santos, P. M.; Kerr, R. B.; Noto, J.; Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzalez, S. A.; Migliozzi, M. and Garcia, R. (2009). Simultaneous O+ temperatures derived from OII 7320A line width and incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo. AGU Fall Meeting 2009, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 14–18 (SA11A–1459).

Brum, C.G.M.; Robles, E.; Santos, P.M.; Gonzales, S. A.; Aponte, N.; Tepley, C. and Padilla, C. (2009). Oxygen densities derived from Arecibo ISR (or MSIS vs. Burnside Factor and alternative hypothesis for the O–O+ cross section adjustment). Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2009, Santa Fe, NM, June 28 to July 2 (MDIT–03).

Santos, P.M.; Noto, J.; Migliozzi, M; Riccobono, J.; Brum, C.G.M.; Garcia, R; Robles, E.; Kerr, R. (2009). Simultaneous OII 7320–line width and Incoherent Scatter Radar O+ temperatures measured at Arecibo. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2009, Santa Fe, NM, June 28 to July 2 (MLTS–02), page 19.

Robles, E.; Brum, C.G.M.; Santos, P.M.; Gonzales, S. A.; Aponte, N. and Tepley, C. (2009). Climatology of the antiparallel plasma drift over Arecibo Observatory. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2009, Santa Fe, NM, June 28 to July 2 (LTRV–02), page 26.

Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzales, S.; Aponte, N.; Tepley, C. and Santos, P.M. (2009). Oxygen densities derived from Arecibo ISR (or MSIS vs Burnside factor and alternative hypothesis for the O–O+ cross section adjustment). International Living With a Star (ILWS), Ubatuba, Brazil, Oct. 4–9.

Santos, P.M.; Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzales, S. and Tepley, C. (2009). In search of a long–trend neutral wind variations at Arecibo using incoherent scattering radar measurements. International Living With a Star (ILWS), Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, Oct. 4–9

2008

Engle, E.; Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.; Robles, E.; Gonzales, S. and Santos, P.M. (2008). Solar, geomagnetic and seasonal variability of the NmF2 and foF2 over Arecibo Observatory. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting, Midway, UT, Jun. 16–21 (LTRV–02), page 6.

Santos, P.M.; Noto, J.; Migliozzi, M.; Riccobono, J.; Brum, C.G.M.; Garcia, R.; Robles, E. and Kerr, R. (2008). Altitude variation of the OII 7320 spectral line width at Arecibo. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting, Midway, UT, Jun. 16–21 (EQIT–14), page 26.

Brum, C.G.M.; Aponte, N.; Gonzales, S. and Santos, P.M. (2008). H+ ion behavior over Arecibo during equinox. 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 2008, Montreal, Canada, Jul.13–20.

Santos, P.M.; Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzales, S.; Tepley, C. and Robles, E. (2008). In search of the long–trend meridional neutral wind variations at Arecibo using FPI and ISR measurements. 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Montreal, Canada, Jul.13–20.

Santos, P.M.; Noto, J.; Migliozzi, M.; Brum, C.G.M.; Kerr, R.; Riccobono, J.; Garcia, R. and Robles, E. (2008). Study of the OII 7320A spectral line width at Arecibo. AGU Fall Meeting 2008, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 15–19 (A51I–0217).

2007

Santos, P.M.; Gonzales, S.; Aponte, N.; Tepley, C. and Brum, C.G.M. (2007). Long–term meridional neutral wind study over Arecibo using Incoherent Scattering Radar. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2007, Santa Fe, NM, Jun. 24–29 (MLT–02), page 1.

2006

Santos, P.M.; Gonzales, S.; Aponte, N.; Tepley, C.; Robles, E. and Brum, C.G.M. (2006). Study of the meridional neutral winds behavior by the Arecibo Incoherent Scattering Radar. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting 2006, Santa F, NM, Jun. 19–23 (LTRV–08), page 9.

2005

Santos, P.M.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A. (2005). A statistical study of the occurrence and zonal drift velocity variations of the plasma Bubbles with geomagnetic activity during episodes of Corotating and Transient Solar Wind Streams. Chapman Conference on Corotating Solar Wind Streams and Recurrent Geomagnetic Activity, Manaus, Brazil, Feb. 6–12.

Brum, C.G.M.; Santos, P.M.; Souza, J.R.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S. and Bailey, J.P. (2005). Lower ionosphere numerical simulations for the South Atlantic Anomaly region. The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Scientific Assembly (Xth IAGA), Toulouse, France, Jul. 18–28.

Santos, P.M.; Souza, J.R.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Bailey, J.P. and Brum, C.G.M. (2005). Development of the Sheffield University Plasmasphere–Ionosphere Model–Supim new version and its validation for the Brazilian Sector. The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Scientific Assembly (Xth IAGA), Toulouse, France, Jul. 18–28.

Santos, P.M.; Brum, C.G.M.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.; Souza, J.R. and Takahashi, H. (2005). A statistical study of plasma bubble zonal drift velocity variations with geomagnetic activity and events of corotating a transient stream. Ninth International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, Salvador, BA, Brazil, Sep. 11–14.

Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Fernandez, J.H. and Santos, P. M. T. (2005). Modelo numrico da baixa ionosfera. Ninth International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, Salvador, BA, Brazil, Sep. 11–14.

2004

Santos, P.M.T.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.; Souza, J.R.; Takahashi, H. and Brum, C.G.M. (2004). Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma bubble zonal drift velocities at low latitude in Brazil. VII COLAGE – Latin–American Conference on Space Geophysics, Atibaia, SP, Brazil, Mar. 29 to Apr. 2.

Brum, C.G.M.; Fedrizzi, M.; Santos, P.M.T.; Bertoni, F.C.P.; Fernandez, J.H. and Barros, L.P. (2004). Resposta da baixa ionosfera da Anomalia Magntica do Atlntico Sul e da regio sub–polar ao campo magntico interplanetrio. VII COLAGE – Latin–American Conference on Space Geophysics, Atibaia, SP, Brazil, Mar. 29 to Apr. 2.

Brum, C.G.M.; Santos, P.M.T.; Fedrizzi, M.; Bertoni, F.C.P.; Fernandez, J.H. and Barros, L.P. (2004). Study of simultaneous detection of the ionospheric cosmic noise absorption transient events over sub–polar and South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly region from 1989 to 1996. VII COLAGE – Latin–American Conference on Space Geophysics, Atibaia, SP, Brazil, Mar. 29 to Apr. 2.

Brum, C.G.M.; Santos, P.M.T.; Fedrizzi, M.; Bertoni, F.C.P.; Fernandez, J.H. and Barros, L.P. (2004). Travelling ionospheric disturbances detected by riometers in the sub–polar and the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly regions. VII COLAGE – Latin–American Conference on Space Geophysics, Atibaia, SP, Brazil, Mar. 29 to Apr. 2.

Brum, C.G.M.; Carrasco, A.J.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S. and Santos, P.M.T. (2004). Model of the lower ionosphere ionization by electron precipitation. 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Paris, France, Jul. 18–25.

Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Santos, P.M.T. and Barros, L.P. (2004). Travelling ionospheric disturbances detected by riometers in the sub–polar and the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly regions. 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Paris, France, Jul. 18–25.

Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Santos, P.M.T. and Barros, L.P. (2004). Study of simultaneous detection of the ionospheric cosmic noise absorption transient events over sub–auroral and South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly region from 1989 to 1996. 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Paris, France, Jul. 18–25.

Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Santos, P.M.T.; Barros, L.P. (2004). Lower ionosphere cosmic noise absorption responses to the interplanetary magnetic field behavior in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly and sub–auroral regions. 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Paris, France, Jul. 18–25.

Brum, C. G. M.; Echer, E.; Santos, P. M. T. Mtodos de reduo e correo de dados de rimetros. So Jos dos Campos: publicao interna – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 2004.

Santos, P.M.T.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.; Souza, J.R.; Takahashi, H. and Brum, C.G.M. (2004). Plasma bubble zonal velocity variations with solar activity over the Brazilian region. Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) meeting, Santa F, NM, Jul. 18–25.