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Research Areas
  • Incoherent Scatter Radar
  • Ionospheric Modification
  • Ionospheric Physics

Michael Peter Sulzer

Michael Peter Sulzer received his B.A. in Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut in June, 1970 and his Master's in Electrical Engineering at Pennsylvania State University in March, 1974. Later he earned his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University in January, 1979. He moved onto become a Research Associate National Astronomy and Ionosphere at Center Cornell University (February 1981 – May 1986) and Case Western Reserve University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics January 1979 – February 1981.

Since 2000, Sulzer has worked with the National Astronomy and Ionosphere at Center Cornell University and NAIC extensively. He is the Head of Radar Sciences in NAIC while being a Senior Research Associate at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center in Cornell University since 1986. Prior to this position, from 1991 to 2000, he was the Head of Ionospheric Modification Department in NAIC. During this time, from January 1989 to 2000, he was Senior Research Associate National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center Cornell University before working as the Acting Head of Electronics Department National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center Cornell University
(September 1988 – January 1989).

I am currently interested in investigating the physics describing the formation of various types of irregularities in the ionosphere as produced by a powerful HF wave, and deriving the spectrum of incoherent scatter plasma line from a narrow peak in the electron velocity density function. I have worked before on other aspects of the HF modified ionosphere, the incoherent scatter spectrum in the F region when Coulomb collision are important, and various radar techniques for the Arecibo 430 MHz radar.

Currents projects include finding the spectrum of the plasma line with narrow peaks in the electron velocity density function, using data from the last HF campaign to investigate the production of unusual irregularities, working on the 430 transmitter upgrade project, and planning for the new data taking system.

Currently mentoring a new SAS radar staff member

Peer-reviewed publications


2020

Edlyn V. Levine, Paul A. Bernhardt, Michael P. Sulzer, Peter J. Sultan, Brian S. Henderson, Eliana Nossa , Stanley C. Briczinski, Phil Perillat, Plasma Cavity Formation During Ionospheric Heating at Arecibo, 07 May 2020
https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027715

Raizada S, Smith J, Lautenbach J, Aponte N, Perillat P, Sulzer M and Mathews J (2020), 'New Lidar Observations of Ca+ in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere Over Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 47(5), pp. e2020GL087113.

2019

Mahmoudian A, Nossa E, Isham B, Bernhardt P, Briczinski S and Sulzer M (2019), 'Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (NSEE) Yielding Electron Temperature Measurements at the Arecibo Observatory', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 0(ja)

2018

Gong Y, Ma Z, Lv X, Zhang S, Zhou Q, Aponte N and Sulzer M (2018), 'A Study on the Quarterdiurnal Tide in the Thermosphere at Arecibo During the February 2016 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 45(23), pp. 13,142–13,149.

Rout D, Chakrabarty D, Sarkhel S, Sekar R, Fejer BG, Reeves GD, Kulkarni AS, Aponte N, Sulzer M, Mathews JD, Kerr RB and Noto J (2018), 'The Ionospheric Impact of an ICME–Driven Sheath Region Over Indian and American Sectors in the Absence of a Typical Geomagnetic Storm', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 123(5), pp. 4298–4308.

2017

Vierinen J, Gustavsson B, Hysell DL, Sulzer MP, Perillat P and Kudeki E (2017), 'Radar Observations of Thermal Plasma Oscillations in the Ionosphere', Geophysical Research Letters. , pp. n/a–n/a.

Pradipta R, Lee M–C, Coster AJ, Tepley CA, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2017), 'Ionospheric plasma disturbances generated by naturally occurring large–scale anomalous heat sources', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 156, pp. 15 – 23.

Hysell DL, Vierinen J and Sulzer MP (2017), 'On the theory of the incoherent scatter gyrolines', Radio Science. , pp. n/a–n/a.

Zhang S–R, Erickson PJ, Zhang Y, Wang W, Huang C, Coster AJ, Holt JM, Foster JF, Sulzer M and Kerr R (2017), 'Observations of ion–neutral coupling associated with strong electrodynamic disturbances during the 2015 St. PatrickGs Day storm', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. , pp. n/a–n/a. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2016

Hysell DL, Larsen M and Sulzer M (2016), 'Observational evidence for new instabilities in the midlatitude E and F region', Annales Geophysicae. Vol. 34(11), pp. 927–941.

Gong Y, Zhou Q, Zhang S, Aponte N and Sulzer M (2016), 'An incoherent scatter radar study of the midnight temperature maximum that occurred at Arecibo during a sudden stratospheric warming event in January 2010', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. , pp. n/a–n/a.

2015

Carlson HC, Djuth FT, Perillat P and Sulzer M (2015), 'Low Latitude 10s eV electrons: Night Time Plasma Line as a new Research Capability', Geophysical Research Letters. , pp. n/a–n/a.

2014

Hysell DL, Larsen MF and Sulzer MP (2014), 'High time– and height–resolution neutral wind profile measurements across the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region using the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics., March, 2014. Vol. 119, pp. 2345–2358.

Nicolls MJ, Vadas SL, Aponte N and Sulzer MP (2014), 'Horizontal parameters of daytime thermospheric gravity waves and E region neutral winds over Puerto Rico', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 119(1), pp. 575–600.

Sojka JJ, Jensen JB, David M, Schunk RW, Woods T, Eparvier F, Sulzer MP, Gonzalez SA and Eccles JV (2014), 'Ionospheric model–observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo Incorporation of SDO–EVE solar irradiances', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics., May, 2014. Vol. 119(5), pp. 3844–3856. Wiley–Blackwell.

2013

Rooker LA, Lee M, Pradipta R, Ross LM, See B, Sulzer MP, Tepley C, Gonzalez SA and Aponte N (2013), 'Forward Acceleration of Ionospheric Electrons by NAU 40.75–kHz Whistler Waves Over Arecibo', IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science., Nov, 2013. Vol. 41(11), pp. 3159–3165.

Aponte N, Brum CGM, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2013), 'Measurements of the O+ to H+ transition height and ion temperatures in the lower topside ionosphere over Arecibo for equinox conditions during the 2008–2009 extreme Solar Minimum', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics., July, 2013. Vol. 118, pp. 4465–4470.

Gong Y, Zhou Q, Zhang SD, Aponte N, Sulzer M and Gonzalez SA (2013), 'The F region and topside ionosphere response to a strong geomagnetic storm at Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 118(8), pp. 5177–5183.

Hysell D, Nossa E, Aveiro H, Larsen M, Munro J, Sulzer M and Gonzalez S (2013), 'Fine structure in midlatitude sporadic E layers', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics. Vol. 103(0), pp. 16–23.

Pradipta R, Rooker L, Whitehurst L, Lee M, Ross L, Sulzer M, Gonzalez S, Tepley C, Aponte N, See B and Hu K (2013), 'Whistler wave–induced ionospheric plasma turbulence: Source mechanisms and remote sensing ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics. Vol. 103(0), pp. 169 – 175.

2012

Gong Y, Zhou Q, Zhang S, Aponte N, Sulzer M and Gonzalez S (2012), 'Midnight ionosphere collapse at Arecibo and its relationship to the neutral wind, electric field, and ambipolar diffusion', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 117(A8), pp. n/a–n/a.

Hysell DL, Nossa E, Larsen MF, Munro J, Smith S, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2012), 'Dynamic instability in the lower thermosphere inferred from irregular sporadic E layers', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 117(A8), pp. n/a–n/a.

Nikoukar R, Kamalabadi F, Kudeki E and Sulzer M (2012), 'On resolution/error trade–offs in incoherent scatter radar measurements', Radio Science. Vol. 47(1), pp. n/a–n/a.

2011

Fentzke JT, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2011), 'The effects of Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook, Brownian, and hard–sphere ion–neutral collision models on the incoherent scatter spectrum in the E region', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 116(A1), pp. n/a–n/a.

Garzon DP, Brum CGM, Echer E, Aponte N, Sulzer MP, Gonzalez SA, Kerr RB and Waldrop L (2011), 'Response of the topside ionosphere over Arecibo to a moderate geomagnetic storm', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics. Vol. 73(11–12), pp. 1568–1574.

Hysell DL, Yokoyama T, Nossa E, Hedden RB, Larsen MF, Munro J, Smith S, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2011), 'Radar and Optical Observations of IrregularMidlatitude Sporadic E Layers Beneath MSTIDs', Aeronomy of the Earth, Atmosphere and Ionosphere. Vol. 19, pp. 269–281.

Zhou QH, Morton YT, Huang CM, Aponte N, Sulzer M and Gonzalez S (2011), 'Incoherent scatter radar observation of E–region vertical electric field at Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 38(1), pp. n/a–n/a.

2010

Chau JL, Aponte NA, Cabassa E, Sulzer MP, Goncharenko LP and Gonzalez SA (2010), 'Quiet time ionospheric variability over Arecibo during sudden stratospheric warming events', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 115(A9), pp. n/a–n/a.

2009

Djuth FT, Zhang LD, Livneh DJ, Seker I, Smith SM, Sulzer MP, Mathews JD and Walterscheid RL (2010), 'AreciboGs thermospheric gravity waves and the case for an ocean source', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 115(A8), pp. n/a–n/a.

Hysell DL, Nossa E, Larsen MF, Munro J, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2009), 'Sporadic E layer observations over Arecibo using coherent and incoherent scatter radar: Assessing dynamic stability in the lower thermosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 114(A12), pp. n/a–n/a.

2008

Bhatt AN, Nicolls MJ, Sulzer MP and Kelley MC (2008), 'Observations of Plasma Line Splitting in the Ionospheric Incoherent Scatter Spectrum', Physical Review Letters. Vol. 100, pp. 045005. American Physical Society.

Dyrud L, Behnke R, Kepko E, Sulzer M and Zafke S (2008), 'Ionospheric ULF oscillations driven from above Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 35, pp. L14101.

Lee MC, Pradipta R, Burke WJ, Labno A, Burton LM, Cohen JA, Dorfman SE, Coster AJ, Sulzer MP and Kuo SP (2008), 'Did Tsunami–Launched Gravity Waves Trigger Ionospheric Turbulence over Arecibo?', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 113(A1), pp. n/a–n/a.

Lee MC, Pradipta R, Burke WJ, Labno A, Burton LM, Cohen JA, Dorfman SE, Coster AJ, Sulzer MP and Kuo SP (2008), 'Correction to Did tsunami–launched gravity waves trigger ionospheric turbulence over Arecibo?', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 113(A0), pp. n/a–n/a.

Nikoukar R, Kamalabadi F, Kudeki E and Sulzer M (2008), 'An efficient near–optimal approach to incoherent scatter radar parameter estimation', Radio Science. Vol. 43(5), pp. n/a–n/a.

Pradipta R, Cohen JA, Lee MC, Labno A, Burton LM, Riddolls RJ, Batishchev OV, Coster AJ, Burke WJ, Starks MJ, Sulzer MP and Kuo SP (2008), 'Space plasma disturbances caused by NAU–launched whistler waves', Physica Scripta. Vol. T132, pp. 014031 (9pp).

Raizada S, Sulzer MP, Tepley CA, Gonzalez SA and Nicolls MJ (2008), 'Inferring D region parameters using improved incoherent scatter radar techniques at Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 113(A12), pp. n/a–n/a.

2007

Aponte N, Sulzer MP, Nicolls MJ, Nikoukar R and Gonzalez SA (2007), 'Molecular ion composition measurements in the F1 region at Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 112(A6), pp. n/a–n/a.

Labno A, Pradipta R, Lee MC, Sulzer MP, Burton LM, Cohen JA, Kuo SP and Rokusek DL (2007), 'Whistler–mode wave interactions with ionospheric plasmas over Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 112(A3), pp. n/a–n/a.

Liu L, Le H, Wan W, Sulzer MP, Lei J and Zhang M–L (2007), 'An analysis of the scale heights in the lower topside ionosphere based on the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar measurements', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 112(A6), pp. n/a–n/a.

Pradipta R, Labno A, Lee MC, Burke WJ, Sulzer MP, Cohen JA, Burton LM, Kuo SP and Rokusek DL (2007), 'Electron precipitation from the inner radiation belt above Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 34(8), pp. n/a–n/a.

Strelnikova I, Rapp M, Raizada S and Sulzer M (2007), 'Meteor smoke particle properties derived from Arecibo incoherent scatter radar observations', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 34(15), pp. n/a–n/a.

Zhang S–R, Holt JM, Bilitza DK, van Eyken T, McCready M, Amory–Mazaudier C, Fukao S and Sulzer M (2007), 'Multiple–site comparisons between models of incoherent scatter radar and IRI', Advances in Space Research . Vol. 39(5), pp. 910–917.

2006

Bhatt AN, Gerken Kendall EA, Kelley MC, Sulzer MP and Shume EB (2006), 'Observations of strong gyro line spectra at Arecibo near dawn', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 33(14), pp. n/a–n/a.

Bishop RL, Aponte N, Earle GD, Sulzer M, Larsen MF and Peng GS (2006), 'Arecibo observations of ionospheric perturbations associated with the passage of Tropical Storm Odette', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 111(A11), pp. A11320 (9 pages).

Fritts DC, Janches D, Riggin DM, Stockwell RG, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez S (2006), 'Gravity waves and momentum fluxes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 430 MHz dual–beam measurements at Arecibo: 2. Frequency spectra, momentum fluxes, and variability', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Vol. 111(D18), pp. n/a–n/a.

Janches D, Fritts DC, Riggin DM, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez S (2006), 'Gravity waves and momentum fluxes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 430 MHz dual–beam measurements at Arecibo: 1. Measurements, methods, and gravity waves', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Vol. 111(D18), pp. n/a–n/a.

NULLColes WA, Harmon JK, Sulzer MP, Chau JL and Woodman RF (2006), 'An upper bound on the solar radar cross section at 50 MHz', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 111(A4), pp. n/a–n/a.

Luan X, Liu L, Wan W, Lei J, Zhang S–R, Holt JM and Sulzer MP (2006), 'A study of the shape of topside electron density profile derived from incoherent scatter radar measurements over Arecibo and Millstone Hill', Radio Science. Vol. 41(4), pp. n/a–n/a.

Nicolls MJ, Sulzer MP, Aponte N, Seal R, Nikoukar R and Gonzalez SA (2006), 'High–resolution electron temperature measurements using the plasma line asymmetry', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 33(18), pp. n/a–n/a.

Nicolls MJ, Aponte N, Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP and Oliver WL (2006), 'Daytime F region ion energy balance at Arecibo for moderate to high solar flux conditions', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 111(A10), pp. A10307 (16 pages).

Waldrop LS, Kudeki E, Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP, Garcia R, Butala M and Kamalabadi F (2006), 'Derivation of neutral oxygen density under charge exchange in the midlatitude topside ionosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 111(A11), pp. n/a–n/a.

2005

Aponte N, Nicolls MJ, Gonzales SA, Sulzer MP, Kelley MC, Robles E and Tepley CA (2005), 'Instantaneous electric field measurements and derived neutral winds at Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 32(12), pp. n/a–n/a.

Gonzalez SA, Nicolls MJ, Sulzer MP and Aponte N (2005), 'An energy balance study of the lower topside ionosphere using the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and heating facilities', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 110(A11), pp. n/a–n/a.

Waldrop LS, Kerr RB, Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP, Noto J and Kamalabadi F (2005), 'Generation of metastable helium and the 1083 nm emission in the upper thermosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 110(A8), pp. n/a–n/a.

Zhang S–R, Holt JM, van Eyken AP, McCready M, Amory–Mazaudier C, Fukao S and Sulzer M (2005), 'Ionospheric local model and climatology from long–term databases of multiple incoherent scatter radars', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 32(20), pp. n/a–n/a.

Sulzer MP, Aponte N and Gonzalez SA (2005), 'Application of linear regularization methods to Arecibo vector velocities', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 110(A10), pp. n/a–n/a.

2004

Bernhardt PA and Sulzer MP (2004), 'Incoherent scatter measurements of ring–ion beam distributions produced by space shuttle exhaust injections into the ionosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 109(A2), pp. n/a–n/a.'

Djuth FT, Sulzer MP, Gonzalez SA, Mathews JD, Elder JH and Walterscheid RL (2004), 'A continuum of gravity waves in the Arecibo thermosphere?', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 31(16), pp. n/a–n/a.

Sulzer MP (2004), 'Meteoroid velocity distribution derived from head echo data collected at Arecibo during regular world day observations', Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 4(4), pp. 947–954.

Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP, Nicolls MJ and Kerr RB (2004), 'Solar cycle variability of nighttime topside helium ion concentrations over Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 109(A7), pp. n/a–n/a.

Hines CO, Childress LI, Kinney JB and Sulzer MP (2004), 'Modeling of gravity–wave tail spectra in the middle atmosphere via numerical and Doppler–spread methods ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 66(11), pp. 933 – 948.

Janches D, Nolan MC and Sulzer M (2004), 'Radiant measurement accuracy of micrometeors detected by the Arecibo 430 MHz Dual–Beam Radar', Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 4(3), pp. 621–626.

2003

Sulzer M (2003), 'RADAR | Incoherent Scatter Radar', In Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences . Oxford , pp. 1812 – 1819. Academic Press.

Bernhardt PA, Gondarenko NA, Guzdar PN, Djuth FT, Tepley CA, Sulzer MP, Ossakow SL and Newman DL (2003), 'Using radio–induced aurora to measure the horizontal structure of ion layers in the lower thermosphere', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 108(A9), pp. n/a–n/a.

Gelinas LJ, Kelley MC, Sulzer MP, Mishin E and Starks MJ (2003), 'In situ observations during an HF heating experiment at Arecibo: Evidence for Z–mode and electron cyclotron harmonic effects', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 108(A10), pp. n/a–n/a.

2002

Bishop R, Earle G, Gonzalez S, Sulzer M and Collins S (2002), 'Inferred vertical ion velocities associated with intermediate layers ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 64(12–14), pp. 1471–1477.

Collins SC, Plane JM, Kelley MC, Wright TG, Soldán P, Kane TJ, Gerrard AJ, Grime BW, Rollason RJ, Friedman JS, Gonzalez SA, Zhou Q, Sulzer MP and Tepley CA (2002), 'A study of the role of ion–molecule chemistry in the formation of sporadic sodium layers', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 64(7), pp. 845 – 860.

Swartz WE, Collins SC, Kelley MC, Makela JJ, Kudeki E, Franke S, Urbina J, Aponte N, Gonzalez S, Sulzer MP and Friedman JS (2002), 'First observations of an F–region turbulent upwelling coincident with severe E–region plasma and neutral atmosphere perturbations ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 64(12–14), pp. 1545 – 1556.

2001

Aponte N, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2001), 'Corection of the Jicamarca electron–ion temperature ratio problem: Verifying the effect of electron Coulomb collisions on the incoherent scatter spectrum', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 106(A11), pp. 24785–24793.

Mathews JD, Gonzalez S, Sulzer MP, Zhou Q–H, Urbina J, Kudeki E and Franke S (2001), 'Kilometer–scale layered structures inside spread–F', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 28(22), pp. 4167–4170.

Meléndez–Alvira DJ, Picone JM, Kelley OA, Zhou Q and Sulzer MP (2001), 'Bimodality in the climatological topside electron and exospheric temperature distributions at Arecibo', Radio Science. Vol. 36(2), pp. 311–324.

2000

Kagan LM, Kelley MC, Garcia F, Bernhardt PA, Djuth FT, Sulzer MP and Tepley CA (2000), 'The Structure of Electromagnetic Wave–Induced 557.7–nm Emission Associated with a Sporadic–E Event over Arecibo', Physical Review Letters. Vol. 85, pp. 218–221.

Kelley MC, Makela JJ, Saito A, Aponte N, Sulzer M and Gonzalez SA (2000), 'On the electrical structure of airglow depletion/Height layer bands over Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 27(18), pp. 2837–2840.

MacPherson B, Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP, Bailey GJ, Djuth F and Rodriguez P (2000), 'Measurements of the topside ionosphere over Arecibo during the total solar eclipse of February 26, 1998', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 105(A10), pp. 23055–23067.

MacPherson B, Gonzalez SA, Pi X, Kelley M, Bailey GJ, Sulzer MP, Hajj G, Buonsanto M and Wang C (2000), 'Comparison between SUPIM simulations and measured TEC for the January, 1997 storm', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 27(18), pp. 2845–2848.

Swartz WE, Kelley MC, Makela JJ, Collins SC, Kudeki E, Franke S, Urbina J, Aponte N, Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (2000), 'Coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations during intense mid–latitude spread F', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 27(18), pp. 2829–2832.

Cheung PY, Sulzer MP, DuBois DF and Russell DA (2000), 'High–power high–frequency–induced Langmuir turbulence in the smooth ionosphere at Arecibo. II. Low duty cycle, altitude–resolved, observations', Physics of Plasmas. Vol. 8, pp. 802–812.

DuBois DF, Russell DA, Cheung PY and Sulzer MP (2000), 'High–power high–frequency–induced Langmuir turbulence in the smooth ionosphere at Arecibo. I. Theoretical predictions for altitude–resolved plasma line radar spectra', Physics of Plasmas. Vol. 8, pp. 791–801.

Earle GD, Bishop RL, Collins SC, Gonzalez SA and Sulzer MP (2000), 'Descending layer variability over Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 105(A11), pp. 24951–24961.

Friedman JS, Gonzalez SA, Tepley CA, Zhou Q, Sulzer MP, Collins SC and Grime BW (2000), 'Simultaneous atomic and ion layer enhancements observed in the mesopause region over Arecibo during the Coqui II Sounding Rocket Campaign', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 27(4), pp. 449–452.

Isham B, Tepley CA, Sulzer MP, Zhou QH, Kelley MC, Friedman JS and Gonzalez SA (2000), 'Upper atmospheric observations at the Arecibo Observatory: Examples obtained using new capabilities', Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 105({A8}), pp. 18609–18637.

1999

Buonsanto M, Gonzalez S, Pi X, Ruohoniemi J, Sulzer M, Swartz W, Thayer J and Yuan D (1999), 'Radar chain study of the May, 1995 storm ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 61(3–4), pp. 233 – 248.

Djuth FT, Bernhardt PA, Tepley CA, Gardner JA, Kelley MC, Broadfoot AL, Kagan LM, Sulzer MP, Elder JH, Selcher C, Isham B, Brown C and Carlson HC (1999), 'Large airglow enhancements produced via wave–plasma interactions in sporadic E', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 26(11), pp. 1557–1560.

Lee MC, Klien EMC, Burke WJ, Zhang AX, Riddolls RJ, Kuo SP, Sulzer MP and Isham B (1999), 'Augmentation of natural ionospheric plasma turbulence by HF heater waves', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 26(1), pp. 37–40.

1998

Cho JY, Sulzer MP and Kelley MC (1998), 'Meteoric dust effects on D–region incoherent scatter radar spectra ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 60(3), pp. 349–357.

Lee MC, Riddolls RJ, Burke WJ, Sulzer MP, Kuo SP and Klien EMC (1998), 'Generation of large sheet–like ionospheric plasma irregularities at Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 25(16), pp. 3067–3070.

Lee MC, Riddolls RJ, Burke WJ, Sulzer MP, Klien EMC, Rowlands MJ and Kuo SP (1998), 'Ionospheric plasma bubble generated by Arecibo heater', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 25(5), pp. 579–582.

MacPherson B, Gonzales SA, Bailey GJ, Moffett RJ and Sulzer MP (1998), 'The effects of meridional neutral winds on the O+–H+ transition altitude over Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 103(A12), pp. 29183–29198.

Melendez–Alvira DJ, Picone JM, Kelley OA, Zhou Q and Sulzer M (1998), 'Histograms of Arecibo World Days Measurements and Linear–H Fits Between 1985 and 1995', NRL/MR/7640–98–8311. Vol. n/a–n/a, pp. n/a–n/a.

Noto J, Kerr RB, Shea EM, Waldrop LS, Fisher G, Rudy RJ, Hecht JH, Gonzalez SA, Sulzer MP and Garcia R (1998), 'Evidence for recombination as a significant source of metastable helium', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 103(A6), pp. 11595–11603.

1997

Djuth FT, Sulzer MP, Elder JH and Wickwar VB (1997), 'High–resolution studies of atmosphere–ionosphere coupling at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico', Radio Science. Vol. 32(6), pp. 2321–2344.

Fesen CG, Emery BA, Buonsanto MJ, Zhou QH and Sulzer MP (1997), 'Simulations of the F region during the January 1993 10–day campaign', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 102(A4), pp. 7249–7265.

Goldman M, Newman D, Drake R and Afeyan BB (1997), 'Theory of convective saturation of Langmuir waves during ionospheric modification of a barium cloud', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 59(18), pp. 2335–2350.

Zhou QH, Sulzer MP, Tepley CA, Fesen CG, Roble RG and Kelley MC (1997), 'Neutral winds and temperature in the tropical mesosphere and lower thermosphere during January 1993: Observation and comparison with TIME–GCM results', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 102(A6), pp. 11507–11519.

Lee MC, Riddolls RJ, Vilece KD, Dalrymple NE, Rowlands MJ, Moriarty DT, Groves KM, Sulzer MP and Kuo SP (1997), 'Laboratory reproduction of Arecibo experimental results: HF wave–enhanced Langmuir waves', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 24(2), pp. 115–118.

Mathews JD, Sulzer MP and Perillat P (1997), 'Aspects of layer electrodynamics inferred from high–resolution ISR observations of the 80–270 km ionosphere', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 24(11), pp. 1411–1414.

Scali JL, Reinisch BW, Richards PG, Zhou Q, Sulzer M and Swartz WE (1997), 'Comparison of incoherent scatter radar and Digisonde measurements with field line interhemispheric plasma modeled results at middle and low latitudes', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 102(A4), pp. 7345–7355.

Zhou QH and Sulzer MP (1997), 'Incoherent scatter radar observations of the F–region ionosphere at Arecibo during January 1993 ', Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 59(17), pp. 2213 – 2229.

1996

Gonzalez SA and Sulzer MP (1996), 'Detection of He+ layering in the topside ionosphere over Arecibo during equinox solar minimum conditions', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 23(18), pp. 2509–2512.

Sulzer MP and Gonzalez SA (1996), 'Simultaneous measurements of O+ and H+ temperatures in the topside ionosphere over Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 23(22), pp. 3235–3238.

1995

Bernhardt PA, Siefring CL, Rodriguez P, Haas DG, Baumback MM, Romero HA, Solin DA, Djuth FT, Duncan LM, Hunton DE, Pollock CJ, Sulzer MP, Tepley CA, Wagner LS and Goldstein JA (1995), 'The Ionospheric Focused Heating experiment', Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 100, pp. 17331–17346.

Djuth FT, Sulzer MP, Elder JH and Groves KM (1995), 'The CRRES AA 2 Release: HF wave–plasma interactions in a dense Ba+ cloud', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 100(A9), pp. 17347–17366.

Kelley MC, Arce TL, Salowey J, Sulzer M, Armstrong WT, Carter M and Duncan L (1995), 'Density depletions at the 10–m scale induced by the Arecibo heater', Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 100(A9), pp. 17367–17376.

Zhou Q, Tepley CA and Sulzer MP (1995), 'Meteor observations by the Arecibo 430 MHz incoherent scatter radar–I. Results from time–integrated observations', Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics. Vol. 57(4), pp. 421–431.

1994

Djuth FT, Sulzer MP and Elder JH (1994), 'Application of the coded long–pulse technique to plasma line studies of the ionosphere', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 21(24), pp. 2725–2728.

Djuth FT, Stubbe P, Sulzer MP, Kohl H, Rietveld MT and Elder JH (1994), 'Altitude characteristics of plasma turbulence excited with the Tromso Superheater', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 99(A1), pp. 333–339.

Sulzer MP and Fejer JA (1994), 'Radar spectral observations of HF–induced ionospheric Langmuir turbulence with improved range and time resolution', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 99(A8), pp. 15035–15050.

1993

Sulzer MP (1993), 'A new type of alternating code for incoherent scatter measurements', Radio Science. Vol. 28(6), pp. 995–1001.

Hines C, Adams G, Brosnahan J, Djuth F, Sulzer M, Tepley C and Baelen JV (1993), 'Multi–instrument observations of mesospheric motions over Arecibo: comparisons and interpretations ', Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 55(3), pp. 241–287.

1991

Burnside R, Tepley C and Sulzer M (1991), 'World Day observations at Arecibo: 1985 to 1989', Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 96(A3), pp. 3691–3710.

Burnside RG, Tepley CA, Sulzer MP, Fuller–Rowell TJ, Torr DG and Roble RG (1991), 'The neutral thermosphere at Arecibo during geomagnetic storms', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 96(A2), pp. 1289–1301.

Sulzer MP and Fejer JA (1991), 'Simultaneous observations of 46.8–MHz and 430–MHz radar backscatter from HF–induced ionospheric Langmuir turbulence', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 96(A10), pp. 17891–17895.

Fejer JA, Sulzer MP and Djuth FT (1991), 'Height dependence of the observed spectrum of radar backscatter from HF–induced ionospheric Langmuir turbulence', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 96(A9), pp. 15985–16008.

1990

Djuth FT, Sulzer MP and Elder JH (1990), 'High resolution observations of HF–induced plasma waves in the ionosphere', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 17(11), pp. 1893–1896.

1989

Fejer J, Djuth F, Ierkic H and Sulzer M (1989), 'Simultaneous observations of the enhanced plasma line and of the reflected HF wave at Arecibo', Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 51, pp. 721–725.

Thidé B, Hedberg Å, Fejer JA and Sulzer MP (1989), 'First observations of stimulated electromagnetic emission at Arecibo', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 16(5), pp. 369–372

Sulzer MP (1989), 'Recent incoherent scatter techniques', Advances in Space Research . Vol. 9(5), pp. 153–162.

Sulzer MP, Ierkic HM and Fejer JA (1989), 'Observational limitations on the role of Langmuir cavitons in ionospheric modification experiments at Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 94(A6), pp. 6841–6854.

1988

Bernhardt PA, Swartz WE, Kelly MC, Sulzer MP and Noble ST (1988), 'Spacelab 2 Upper Atmospheric Modification Experiment Over Arecibo, 2, Plasma dynamics', Astrophysical Letters and Communications. Vol. 27, pp. 183–198.

Burnside RG, Sulzer MP and Walker JCG (1988), 'Determination of thermospheric temperatures and neutral densities at Arecibo from the ion energy balance', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 93(A8), pp. 8642–8650.

Mathews JD, Breakall JK and Sulzer MP (1988), 'The Moon as a calibration target of convenience for VHF–UHF radar systems', Radio Science. Vol. 23(1), pp. 1–12.

1987

Burnside RG, Walker JCG and Sulzer MP (1987), 'Kinematic properties of the F region ion velocity field inferred from incoherent scatter radar measurements at Arecibo', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 92(A4), pp. 3345–3355.

Djuth FT, Jost RJ, Ierkic HM, Sulzer MP and Noble ST (1987), 'Observations of HF–enhanced ion waves in the ionosphere', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 14(3), pp. 194–197.

Djuth FT, Thidé B, Ierkic HM and Sulzer MP (1987), 'Large F–region electron–temperature enhancements generated by high–power HF radio waves', Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 14(9), pp. 953–956.

Fejer JA and Sulzer MP (1987), 'Observation of suprathermal electron fluxes during ionospheric modification experiments', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 92(A4), pp. 3441–3444.

Maekawa Y, Fukao S, Hirota I, Sulzer MP and Kato S (1987), 'Some further results on long term mesospheric and lower thermospheric wind observations by the Arecibo UHF radar', Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 49(1), pp. 63–71

1986

Sulzer MP (1986), 'A phase modulation technique for a sevenfold statistical improvement in incoherent scatter data–taking', Radio Science. Vol. 21(4), pp. 737–744.

Sulzer MP (1986), 'A radar technique for high range resolution incoherent scatter autocorrelation function measurements utilizing the full average power of klystron radars', Radio Science. Vol. 21(6), pp. 1033–1040.

1985

Sulzer MP and Woodman RF (1985), 'Pulse compression hardware decoding techniques for MST radars', Radio Science. Vol. 20(6), pp. 1146–1154.

Fejer J, Gonzales C, Ierkic H, Sulzer M, Tepley C, Duncan L, Djuth F, Ganguly S and Gordon W (1985), 'Ionospheric modification experiments with the Arecibo Heating Facility', Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics . Vol. 47(12), pp. 1165–1179.

Tsuda T, Hirose K, Kato S and Sulzer MP (1985), 'Some findings on correlation between the stratospheric echo power and the wind shear observed by the Arecibo UHF radar', Radio Science. Vol. 20(6), pp. 1503–1508.

1984

Fejer JA and Sulzer M (1984), 'The HF–induced plasma line below threshold', Radio Science. Vol. 19(2), pp. 675–682.

Sulzer MP and Woodman RF (1984), 'Quasi–complementary codes: A new technique for MST radar sounding', Radio Science. Vol. 19(1), pp. 337–344.

Hagfors T, Birkmayer W and Sulzer M (1984), 'A new method for accurate ionospheric electron density measurements by incoherent scatter radar', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 89(A8), pp. 6841–6845.

1983

Fejer JA, Ierkic HM, Woodman RF, Rottger J, Sulzer M, Behnke RA and Veldhuis A (1983), 'Observations of the HF–enhanced plasma line with a 46.8–MHz Radar and reinterpretation of previous observations with the 430–MHz radar', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. Vol. 88(A3), pp. 2083–2092.

Hirota I, Maekawa Y, Fukao S, Fukuyama K, Sulzer MP, Fellous JL, Tsuda T and Kato S (1983), 'Fifteen–day observation of mesospheric and lower thermospheric motions with the aid of the Arecibo UHF radar', Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. Vol. 88(C11), pp. 6835–6842.

1982

Sulzer MP, Mathews JD and Tomko AA (1982), 'A UHF cross–modulation D region heating experiment with aeronomic implications', Radio Science. Vol. 17(2), pp. 435–443.