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Research Areas
  • General Aeronomy (Troposphere)
  • Thermosphere Coupling
  • Space Weather
  • Ionospheric Secular Changes Plasma Physics.

Christiano Garnett Marques Brum

  • Deputy Director of Science Operations,
    SAS Acting Head
  • Space & Atmospheric Sciences
  • cbrum@naic.edu
  • Ext: 242
  • Web

Brum graduated in Industrial Engineering from the Center for the Development of Technology and Human Resources (1996), Masters and Doctorate in Space Geophysics from the National Institute for Space Research (INPE 1999 and 2004). He earned his post–doctorates at INPE (2004–2006 2007), Utah University (2006) and Arecibo Observatory – Cornell University (2007–2011). Brum has experience in the field of Geosciences, with an emphasis on Aeronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, acting mainly on the following themes: lower ionosphere (medium and high latitudes), topside–protonosphere, neutral thermospheric winds, and numerical modeling. Currently is the Acting Head of the AO Space and Atmospheric Science department and the Deputy Director of Science Operations.

Brum's research includes study of long–term trends (anthropogenic or not) of the topside–protonosphere, atmospheric coupling, secular changes, medium–scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), empirical and physical modeling of the ionosphere.

Francisco Cordova (PI) and Christiano G.M. Brum (Co–PI) worked on the project titled: Restoration of Scientific Capabilities at the Arecibo Observatory after the impact of Hurricane Maria, award Number:1930772 (NSF).

(i) Master's Thesis


Wivaldo Dantas de Asevedo Junior (2009) (Masters in Space Geophysics). Dissertation Title: 'Modelo Ionosferico Regional Parametrizado' or 'Parametrized Regional Ionospheric Model'. (National Institute for Space Research – INPE, Brazil). Advisers: Dr. C.G.M. Brum, Dr.Jonas Rodrigues de Souza and Dr.Jose Augusto Bittencourt.


(ii) Ph.D's Thesis


Cristina Yamashita (2015) (PhD in Space Geophysics). Thesis Title: 'Estudo da Variabilidade do Fluxo Solar e Seus Efeitos no Geoespaco' or 'Long–Term Variability of F2 Layer in the South American Sector'. (National Institute for Space Research – INPE, Brazil). Advisers: Dr. C.G.M. Brum, Dr. Dr.Ezequiel Echer and Dr. Mariza Echer.

Wivaldo Dantas de Asevedo Junior (2015–2020) (PhD in Space Geophysics). Thesis Title: 'Modelo Empirico Parametrizado de Ventos Neutros Termosfericos para Baixas e Medias Latitudes Baseado em Estatisticas de Dados Registrados pelo UARS–WINDII'. (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte: Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra). Advisers: Prof. Dr. Jose Henrique Fernandez (CCETU–FRN) and Dr. Christiano Garnett Marques Brum (NAIC).



(iii) Postdocs


Dr. Rajkumar Hajra (2015). Project title: 'A long–term study on the variability of HILDCAA events and solar wind–magnetosphere coupling'. Supervisor: Christiano Garnett Marques Brum.


(iv) Scientific Initiation (Brazilian Research Experience for Undergraduates Program)


Marcus Vinicius Pera de Pina (2006) [Universidade de Taubate – UNITAU]. Project Title: 'Estudo da climatologia ionosferica sobre a regiao sudeste mediante variacoes globais e locais da atividade geomagnetica'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Jose Henrique Fernandez (UNITAU).

Eduardo da Costa Paul (2006) [Universidade de Taubate – UNITAU]. Project Title: 'Estudo da climatologia ionosferica sobre a regiao sudeste mediante variacoes globais e locais da atividade geomagnetica'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Jose Henrique Fernandez (UNITAU).

(v) Arecibo Observatory Research Experience for Undergraduates & Teachers (AO–REU & RET)

Sophia Salazar (2019) [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology]. Project Title: 'First Survey of Lightning Impacts on the Lower Ionosphere Over Arecibo'. C.G.M. Brum (AO), Pedrina Morais Terra dos Santos (AO) and Caitano L. da Silva (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology).

Hillary Bermudez – Teacher (2018) [Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez]. Project Title: 'PAAPR: STEAM Curriculum'. Mentors: Andres Diaz, Anne Virkki, Kristen Jones, Nipuni Palliyaguru, Christiano Brum, Eliana Nossa and Andrew Ortiz.

Jose Perez Sanabria – Teacher (2018) [CROEV, Villalba]. Project Title: 'PAPAS3 Curriculum'. Mentors: Andres Diaz, Anne Virkki, Kristen Jones, Nipuni Palliyaguru, Christiano Brum, Eliana Nossa and Andrew Ortiz.

Brandon P. Smith (2018) [Pen State University]. Project Title: 'The effect of a magnetic storm on electron density over Arecibo'. Mentors: S. Raizada and C.G.M. Brum (AO).

Khushboo Jain (2017) [University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign]. Project Title: 'Mesospheric Na variability and dependence on geomagnetic and solar activity over Arecibo'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and S. Raizada (AO).

Matthew Proctor (2016) [University of Texas at Dallas (UTD)]. Project Title: 'Retrieving the real F region peak parameters from digisonde data using Incoherent Scatter Radar measurements'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Fabiano S. Rodrigues (UTD).

Christopher Lee Keele (2015) [University of Texas at Dallas (UTD)]. Project Title: 'A Comprehensive Assessment of Radio Occultation Ionospheric Measurements at Mid–Latitudes'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Fabiano S. Rodrigues (UTD).

Mary Elizabeth Spraggs (2015) [Western Kentucky University]. Project Title: 'Latitudinal responses of F2 peak parameters to a high– intensity long–duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and S. Raizada (AO).

Miladys Adorno Lopez (2015) [Universidad Del Turabo]. Project Title: 'Cloud coverage, visibility and precipitation survey for Puerto Rico territory'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Efmi Franco Diaz (2014) [University of Puerto Rico at Humacao]. Project Title: 'First observations of cosmic noise absorption over Arecibo'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Cristina M. Gonzalez Rivera (2014) [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus]. Project Title: 'Nocturnal E–region climatology studies using Incoherent Scatter Radar observations from Arecibo Observatory'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and S. Raizada (AO).

Caitlin Kerr (2013) [Massachusetts Institute of Technology – MIT]. Project Title: 'Neutral Potassium in the Thermosphere: What's going on?'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Jonathan Friedman (AO).

Teresa Symons (2012) [Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University]. Project Title: 'Solar activity effects on total electron content over Arecibo Observatory: Observational results versus IRI predictions'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Eframir Franco Diaz (2012) [Universidad de Puerto Rico, Campus Humacao]. Project Title: 'Solar and season variability of the transition height over Arecibo Observatory'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Vicki Wei Hsu. (2011) [University of Colorado]. Project Title: 'D region meteoric smoke and neutral temperature retrieval using the poker flat incoherent scatter radar' and 'Wave signatures in the mid–latitude ionosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming of January 2010'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum, Jonathan T. Fentzke (JHUAPL) and Larisa Goncharenko (MIT).

David Gonzalez Alcantara (2010) [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus]. Project Title: 'Variability of the transition height over Arecibo due to Solar and Geomagnetic activities'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Aleshka Carrion Matta (2009) [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus]. Project Title: 'A modeling study of foF2 and hmF2 parameters measured by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and comparison with IRI model predictions for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Diana Prado Garzon (2008) [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus]. Project Title: 'Study of the topside constituents' behavior over Arecibo: Evidence for wave propagation in the topside ionosphere'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum.

Ethan Engle (2008) [Case Western Reserve University]. Project Title: 'Study of the ionospheric long–trend variability over Arecibo'. Mentor: C.G.M. Brum and Eva Robles (AO).

(vi) Pre–College Saturday Research Academy


Felipe Perez Toledo (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Is the ionosphere over Arecibo Observatory the same for the longest registered solar minimum (end and begin of solar cycles #23 and #24)?'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Natalia Montero Perez (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Is the ionosphere over Arecibo Observatory the same for the longest registered solar minimum (end and begin of solar cycles #23 and #24)?'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Ihan Acevedo (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Comparing the F–region (O+) and plasmasphere (H++He+) contributions to the VTEC (Vertical Total Electron Content) during the anomalous solar minimum'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Joshua Pupo (2012) [Escuela Vocacional Antonio Luchetti Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Comparing the F–region (O+) and plasmasphere (H++He+) contributions to the VTEC (Vertical Total Electron Content) during the anomalous solar minimum'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Laura Aponte (2012) [Escuela Padre Anibal Reyes Belen de Hatillo]. Project Title: 'Geomagnetic storms prediction for the increasing portion of solar cycle #24'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Yazmin Torres (2012) [Escuela Padre Anibal Reyes Belen de Hatillo]. Project Title: 'Geomagnetic storms prediction for the increasing portion of solar cycle #24'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Yamilette Diaz (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Morphology of the E–region over Arecibo Observatory based on ISR radar data'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Tamara Nieves (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Morphology of the E–region over Arecibo Observatory based on ISR radar data'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Luis Raul Gomez (2012) [Escuela Superior Santiago R. Palmer]. Project Title: 'Determination of the thermospheric atomic oxygen over the Arecibo Observatory region based on Fabry–Perot Interferometer and Incoherent Scatter Radar data'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Alexis Serrano (2012) [Escuela Superior Santiago R. Palmer]. Project Title: 'Determination of the thermospheric atomic oxygen over the Arecibo Observatory region based on Fabry–Perot Interferometer and Incoherent Scatter Radar data'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

Gabriel Amador (2012) [Colegio San Felipe de Arecibo]. Project Title: 'Determination of the thermospheric atomic oxygen over the Arecibo Observatory region based on Fabry–Perot Interferometer and Incoherent Scatter Radar data'. Mentors: C.G.M. Brum and Edvier Cabassa.

(vii) Others


Andy J. Lopez Oquendo [Escuela Petra Mercado Bougart] (2015) 'Variabilidad de la protonosfera/'topside ionosphere' basadas en medidas indirectas de TEC y densidad de electrones'. Mentors: C.G.M.

2020

Pedrina Terra, Fabio Vargas, Christiano Brum and Ethan Miller (2020)'Geomagnetic and Solar dependency of MSTIDs occurrence rate: A climatology based on airglow observations from the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (ROF)'. Journal of Geophysical Research–Space Physics, in press.

Fabio Vargas, Christiano Brum, Pedrina Terra & Delano Gobbi (2020). 'Mean Zonal Drift Velocities of Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Keograms of Nightglow All–Sky Images from the Brazilian Sector'. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)–Atmosphere.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010069

2019

dos Santos, Â. M., Batista, I. S., Abdu, M. A., Sobral, J. H. A., de Souza, J. R., and Brum, C. G. M. (2019) 'Climatology of intermediate descending layers (or 150?km echoes) over the equatorial and low–latitude regions of Brazil during the deep solar minimum of 2009', Annales Geophysicae., 37, 1005–1024.
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo–37–1005–2019

2018

P. P. Joshi, L. S. Waldrop and C. G. M. Brum (2018). 'Ionospheric O+ Momentum Balance Through Charge Exchange With Thermospheric O Atoms'. Journal of Geophysical Research–Space Physics, 123, 9743–9761.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JA025821

Raizada, S.; C.G.M. Brum; Mathews, J. D.; Gonzalez, C. and Franco, E. (2018). Characteristics of nighttime E–region over Arecibo: Dependence on solar flux and geomagnetic variations. Advances in Space Research, V.61, Issue 7, p.1850 – 1857.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2017.07.006

2017

Hajra, R.; Tsurutani, B. T.; C.G.M. Brum and Echer, E. (2017). High–speed solar wind stream effects on the topside ionosphere over Arecibo: A case study during solar minimum. Geophysical Research Letters.
https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073805

2016

Rajkumar Hajra; Shyamal Kumar Chakraborty; Bruce T. Tsurutani; Ashish DasGupta; Ezequiel Echer; C.G.M. Brum; Walter D. Gonzalez and Jose Humberto Andrade Sobral (2016). An empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, May 2016.
https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2016023

2015

S. Raizada; C.G.M. Brum; C. A. Tepley; J. S. Friedman; John. D. Mathews; F.T. Djuth and Caitlin Kerr (2015). First simultaneous measurements of Na and K thermospheric layers along with TILs from Arecibo. Geophysical Research Letters.
https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066714

Abdu, M.A.; Brum, C.G.M.; Batista, P.P.; Gurubaran, S.; Pancheva, D.; Bageston, J. V.; Batista, I.S. and Takahashi, H. (2015). Fast and ultrafast Kelvin wave modulations of the equatorial evening F region vertical drift and spread F development. Earth, Planets and Space, 67.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623–014–0143–5

Rajkumar Hajra; Bruce T. Tsurutani; Ezequiel Echer; Walter D. Gonzalez; C.G.M. Brum; Luis Eduardo A. Vieira and Ondrej Santolik (2015). Relativistic electron acceleration during HILDCAA events: are precursor CIR magnetic storms important? Earth, Planets and Space, 67:109.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623–015–0280–5

2013

Aponte, N.; C.G.M. Brum; M. P. Sulzer and S. A. Gonzalez (2013). Measurements of the O+ to H+ transition height and ion temperatures in the lower topside ionosphere over Arecibo for equinox conditions during the 2008–2009 extreme solar minimum, Journal of Geophysical Research–Space Physics, 118.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50416

C. Martinis; D. Hickey; W. Oliver; N. Aponte; C.G.M. Brum; R. Akmaev; A. Wright and C. Miller (2013). The midnight temperature maximum from Arecibo incoherent scatter radar ion temperature measurements, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, v.103, p.129–137.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2013.04.014

Jonathan S. Friedman; Xinzhao Chu; C.G.M. Brum and Xian Lu (2013). Observation of a thermospheric descending layer of neutral K over Arecibo, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, v.104, p. 253–259.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2013.03.002

Goncharenko, L. P., V.W. Hsu, C.G.M. Brum, S.–R. Zhang, and J. T. Fentzke (2013). Wave signatures in the midlatitude ionosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming of January 2010, Journal of Geophysical Research–Space Physics, 118.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA018251

2012

Fentzke, J. T.; Hsu, V.; Brum, C.G.M.; Strelnikova, I.; Rapp, M. and Nicolls, M. J. (2012). D Region meteoric smoke and neutral temperature retrieval using the poker flat incoherent scatter radar. Geophysical Research Letters. v. 39, L21102.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053841

Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.A.; Fentzke, J.T.; Robles, E.; dos Santos, P.T. and Gonzalez, S.A. (2012). Long–term changes in the thermospheric neutral winds over Arecibo: Climatology based on over three decades of Fabry–Perot observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2011ja016458

Souza Echer, M.P.; Echer, E.; Rigozo, N.R.; Brum, C.G.M.; Nordemann, D.J.R. and Gonzalez, W.D. (2012). On the relationship between global, hemispheric and latitudinal averaged air surface temperature (GISS time series) and solar activity. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, v. 74, p. 87–93.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2011.10.002

2011

Santos, P.M.T.; Brum, C.G.M.; Tepley, C.; Aponte, N.A.; Gonzalez, S.A. and Robles, E. (2011). Using Incoherent Scatter Radar to Investigate the Neutral Wind Long–Term Trend over Arecibo. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 116, A00H13.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016514

Tepley, C.A.; Robles, E.; Garcia, R.; Santos, P.M.T.; Brum, C.G.M. and Burnside, R. (2011). Directional trends in thermospheric neutral winds observed at Arecibo during the past three solar cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research, v.116, p.A00H06.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA016172

Brum, C.G.M.; Rodrigues, F.S.; Santos, P.M.T.; Carrion, A.; Aponte, N.A.; Gonzalez, S.A. and Robles, E. (2011). A modeling study of and parameters measured by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and comparison with IRI model predictions for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23. Journal of Geophysical Research, v.116, p.A03324.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA015727

Garzon, D.P.; Brum, C.G.M.; Echer, E.; Aponte, N.A.; Sulzer, M.; Gonzalez, S.A.; Kerr, R.B. and Waldrop, L. (2011) Response of the topside ionosphere over Arecibo to a moderate geomagnetic storm. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics.; p.1568 – 1574.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2011.02.016

Da Costa, A.M.; Domingues, M.O.; Mendes, O. and Brum, C.G.M. (2011). Interplanetary medium condition effects in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly: A case study. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, p.1478 – 1491.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.010

2010

Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Brum, C.G.M.; Macdougall, J.W.; Santos A. M.; Souza, J.R. and Sobral, J.H.A. (2010). Solar flux effects on the equatorial evening vertical drift and meridional winds over Brazil: A comparison between observational data and the IRI model and the HWM representations. Advances in Space Research, v.46, p.1078 – 1085.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.009

Souza, J.R.; Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Asevedo Jr.; W.D.; Bailey, G.J. and Bittencourt, J.A. (2010). Parameterized Regional Ionospheric Model and a comparison of its results with experimental data and IRI representations. Advances in Space Research, v. 46, p. 1032–1038.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.11.025

2009

Abdu, M.A. and Brum, C.G.M. (2009). Electrodynamics of the vertical coupling processes in the atmosphere–ionosphere system of the low latitude region. Earth, Planets and Space, v. 61, p. 385–395.
https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353156

2008

Abdu, M.A.; Brum, C.G.M.; Batista, I.S.; Sobral, J.H.A.; de Paula, E. and Souza, J. (2008). Solar flux effects on equatorial ionization anomaly and total electron content over Brazil: Observational results versus IRI representations. Advances in Space Research, v. 42, p. 617–625, 2008.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.09.043

2006

Brum, C.G.M.; Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Carrasco, A.J. and Santos, P.M.T. (2006). Numerical Simulation of Nighttime Electron Precipitation in the Lower Ionosphere over a Sub–Auroral Region. Advances in Space Research, v.37, p.1051 – 1057.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2006.02.003

Abdu, M.A.; Ramkumar, T.K.; Batista, I.S.; Brum, C.G.M.; Takahashi, H.; Reinisch, B. and Sobral, J.H.A. (2006). Planetary wave signatures in the equatorial atmosphere ionosphere system, and mesosphere– E– and F region coupling. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, v.68, p.509 – 522.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2005.03.019

Abdu, M.A.; Batista, P.P.; Batista, I.S.; Brum, C.G.M.; Carrasco, A.J. and Reinisch, B.W. (2006). Planetary Wave Oscillations in Mesospheric Winds, Equatorial Evening Prereversal Electric Field and Spread F. Geophysical Research Letters, v. 33, n. L07107, p. 1–4.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024837

2005

Abdu, M.A.; Batista, I.S.; Carrasco, A.J. and Brum, C.G.M. (2005). South Atlantic magnetic anomaly ionization: A review and a new focus on electrodynamic effects in the equatorial ionosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar–Terrestrial Physics, v.67, p.1643 – 1657.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2005.01.014

Contreira, D.B.; Rodrigues, F.S.; Makita, K.; Brum, C.G.M.; Gonzales, W.D.; Trived, N.B.; Silva, M.R. and Schuch, N.J. (2005). An experiment to study solar flare effects on radio–communication signals. Advances in Space Research, v. 36, n. 12, p. 2455–2459.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2004.03.019